Patrimoines Savoirs Pouvoirs
The heritage logics can not be dissociated from the practices and processes of production, transmission and stabilization of knowledge that come into play in their constitution, as well as political, technical and symbolic procedures for the sanctioning of this knowledge by the authorities, who are responsible for to promote them.
The ordering processes of the material and ideal world and the valorization of its elements deemed salient by this social group or category of actors mobilize a great diversity of knowledge registers. Their emergence, hybridizations and circulations give substance to the phenomenon of (recon) birth of the patrimonies. They respond to representations of the world, to particular inclusive or exclusive dynamics, and are conveyed by various practices and languages. This knowledge underlies singular power relations that translate into inequalities of formulation, enjoyment and valuation of the so-called heritages. In the current context of a "hyperpatrimonialisation" of natural and / or cultural objects (conservation units, cultural landscapes, vestiges of the past, food or agricultural systems, among others), the analysis of the dynamics of expression, membership and conflict over this knowledge and its power effects remains a field to be explored.
Coordinated by: Sarah Benabou, Frédérique Chlous, Tarik Dahou, Stephanie Duvail, Laure Emperaire and Vincent Leblan (orgs).
In the 1960s, while ethnosciences became institutionalized at the National Museum of Natural History, André-George Haudricourt published his famous reflection on the "domestication of animals, cultivation of plants and treatment of others" (L'Homme, 1962 ). In this founding text, he shows that the practices of breeders and farmers are indexed on social models. For example, the shepherd's staff is a symbolic equivalent of the scepter, which is the mark of power in certain hierarchical societies.
The aim of the seminar is to rethink this issue in migratory contexts. Rather than the model of Haudricourt "tell me how you treat plants / animals and I will tell you how you treat your like", we will study the tendency of societies to think otherness in the form of an animal or vegetable figure : "Tell me how you treat plants / animals, and I will tell you how you perceive the Other".
In other words, we intend to examine how the Other and the Elsewhere are associated with iconic plant and animal figures in migrant home lands. What role does this trend play in planting or animating otherness in the classification dynamics of collectives and individuals? How does it participate in a mode of integration of otherness? Local recognition of the endemic or exotic nature of a plant or animal is often expressed by its association with human otherness that is sometimes unrelated to its known geographical origin. This is how one can understand for example how the pepper or the tomato, both native to America, have become terroir products in France (Espelette or Marmande); why the Anaconda is associated with Dom Sebastião, former King of Portugal, in some parts of Brazil, or the bear in the figure of the stranger in some parts of the Pyrenees.
This seminar focuses on the appropriation of plants or animals from elsewhere or associated with elsewhere, and the opposite phenomenon, the exotisation of endemic species. He questions the way in which collectives associate autochthony or otherness with plants and animals by reference to categories of people.
Coordinated by: Romain Simenel - UMR 208 Paloc, IRD; Emilie Stoll - URMIS, CNRS; Vincent Leblan - UMR 208 Paloc, IRD; National Museum of Natural History
The aim of the "Maritimities" seminar is to bring together researchers from various disciplines (anthropology, archeology, paleontology, history, ecology, languages and literatures), specialists in maritime, coastal and estuarine societies and at the interface between the humanities and the sciences. life sciences.
Since its creation in 2016, the seminar has focused on the theme of marine species. He questioned the specificity of the taxonomic and symbolic locations, rituals that are assigned to them within heterogeneous human societies, and discussed their role in conservation policies: the claims, confrontations or forms of new identifications that these species are brought to bear. If the seminar "maritimities" has hitherto been the opportunity to decline some emblematic figures of a familiar maritime bestiary (turtles, small cetaceans, seal, seaweed, etc.), it is more towards his atypical parents that we would like at first, to guide our reflection. The table of marine species can not be complete without mentioning these non-aquatic species that transit - clandestinely or not at sea, stimulate on board ritual or epistemological adjustments, move or transfigure imaginary, redefine the landscapes they colonize at the end of this crossing.
The evocation of these atypical figures of the maritime bestiary, like the attention to the idea of "mobility / captivity" that their analysis underlies, provides the opportunity to examine more radically two fundamental questions. On one hand, on the heterogeneity and the dynamism of the elements that integrate the idea of "maritimity". On the other hand, on the lability of the concept of species, which seems to raise from this perspective of contingency that of determinism, of hybridization that of essentialization. What does the notion of species mean, since it is subject to the hazards of voyages and landings, to forced or opportunistic displacements?
Coordinated by: Hélène Artaud, Frédérique Chlous, Émilie Mariat-Roy